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Library of Pantainos

To the southeast of the Ancient Agora is the library built by the Athenian philosopher of the Roman times Titus Flavius Pantainos.

  1. Modern and Contemporary era (1821 - )

    1933 Discovered.

  2. Ottoman era (1453- 1821)

  3. Byzantine era (331 AC- 1453)

  4. Roman era (30 BC- 330 AC)

    Constructed a few years after 100AD.

  5. Hellenistic era (322- 31 BC)

  6. Classical era (478-323 BC)

  7. Archaic era (800-479 BC)

  8. Geometric era (-1100- 800 BC)

  9. Prehistory (-1100 BC)

What I can see

South of the Stoa of Attalos, on Panathenaion Street, there is a building attributed to the Athenian of Roman times, Tito Flavius Pantainos. It was probably used as a library, based on inscriptions found in the area. It had three stoas and shops around a central patio and a square hall. It is quite possible that the building pre-existed these features and that the galleries were constructed by Pantainos. The library rooms were on the east side of the building.

What I can't see

It may have previously functioned as a philosophical school. On both east and west sides, there were propylae with Ionic columns of blue marble. On the lintel of the main entrance, there was an inscription with the names of the donors (including Pantainos as self-proclaimed priest of the Muses, as well as his son and his daughter) and dedications to the goddess Athena, the emperor Trajan, and the Athenian citizens. Another inscription forbade, by invoking an oath, the movement of books outside the library and provided information about its opening hours.


Camp J., (2001), The Archaeology of Athens, Yale University Press, New Haven and London


Thompson H.A., Wycherley R.E., (1972), The Athenian Agora, results of excavations conducted by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, v.6, The Agora of Athens, the History, shape and uses of an ancient city center, The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton, New Jersey


Travlos J., (1980), Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, New York: Hacker Art Book